現在完成式的基本句型為: 主詞 + have / has + 過去分詞 (動詞第三態, 又稱 p.p.) (第三人稱單數的主詞用 has ) 否定句: 主詞 + haven’t / hasn’t + p.p. 疑問句: Have / Has + 主詞 + p.p.? 或 疑問詞(What / Where / Who / How long…) + have / has + 主詞 + p.p.? p.p. 是動詞第三態, 規則動詞就是和過去式一樣加 ed , 像 watched, learned, studied 不規則動詞拚法會變, 像 go 就變成 gone, know 變成 known 等 很多課本最後會有附錄, 字典也會有, 不知道的字可以去查 現在完成式用在以下三種情況: (1) 從以前持續到現在的動作或狀態 (重點是到現在還有或還是這樣; 若現在 沒有, 只有以前用, 就會用過去簡單式) 例: I have worked here for two years. 我已經在這裡工作兩年 He has been busy in the past three days. 他過去三天裡(到現在為止)一直都很忙 (2) 此生到目前為止的經驗 例: Have you (ever) been to France? 你去過法國嗎? Jack has never gone ice-skating. Jack 從來沒溜過冰 (3) 到此刻為止”已經...”, “還沒...” (否定句) 例: I have (already) had dinner. 我已經吃過飯了 We haven’t seen that movie (yet). 我們還沒看過那部電影 其他注意事項: 不論是肯定, 否定, 疑問句都要用過去分詞, 不能用原形動詞 ever (曾經) 只能用在疑問句; 肯定句的”已經”用 already 這個字, 但可以省略, 因為現在完成式本身就已經是”已經...”的意思了 yet 用在否定句表示”還沒...”, 用在疑問句表示”...了沒?” 但也可以省略, 要用的話就放句尾 現在完成式的句子後面常會用 for / since + 時間, 表示持續多久(for) 或從何時開始(since) for 後面要接一段時間的長度, 如 two weeks, three years since 接開始的時間起點, 如 1995, last week, high school, I was 10 (years old) have / has been to… 是”去過...地方”, 而 have / has gone to… 是”出發前往...了” 以下是基本句型變化: I have been to the U.S. I have never been to the U.S. You have seen that movie. You haven’t seen that movie. Have you seen that movie? What movie have you seen? She has lived here for ten years. She hasn’t lived here for ten years. Has she lived here for ten years? How long has she lived here? Henry has bought a house. (buy 的過去分詞) Henry hasn’t bought a house. Has Henry bought a house? What has Henry bought? We have waited for an hour. (這樣說就表示還在等) We haven’t waited for an hour. Have we waited for an hour? How long have we waited? They have known each other since college. 他們從大學時代就認識了 They haven’t known each other since college. Have they known each other since college? How long have they known each other?